If you die from another entity melee-attacking you, you lose ALL your items.
However, if you are killed by projectiles, fire, explosions, drowning, falling, the void, or /kill, you will keep all your equipped armor.
Steps to reproduce:
- Equip some armor.
- Kill yourself via any of the methods listed above.
- When you respawn, notice that you are still wearing the armor you equipped.
- relates to
MCPE-18499 Not losing items in armor slot after death