Resolution: Cannot Reproduce
Windows 7. Java v8u31
What I did:
1. Caught on fire (by lava for long lasting)
2. teleported myself out of fire onto solid ground
For each tick of damage I was flung hundreds of meters into the sky. Elytra didn't even deploy according to model. It seemed like I was still standing. In a server, sometimes server kicked me for flight as it was disabled in server.properties
I believe the problem is how damage from fire is handled. It seems it was made so you don't get flung into the air like you do from a projectile or direct attack, but instead is flung downwards as seen when you try to jump a ledge on fire and it damages you in mid air. this might very well be the cause of the error.
This is not a duplicate of
MC-90549 as it refers to expected jump when damaged by a projectile or direct attack. this issue literally means you get shot up hundreds of blocks in just a second or two. With fire from lava that lasts longer, you can almost expect to reach 1000 meters high.