Mac OS X and Windows 8 (tried both) Latest Java.
So I created a void world using customised super flat and then ran the command "/setblock ~ 64 ~ stone"
This created a wireframe of the block, without textures.
Here's a picture of what is displayed:
If you relog, the texture does come back.
It seems to only do it for the first block in a chunk? So if I run the command again but the block goes in the same chunk as the first one then it's texture is there. Yet if I go to a chunk that hasn't had a block yet, then it does it?
How to duplicate:
Make a void world (nothing but air)
Run the command: "/setblock ~ 64 ~ stone"
Seems to happen 9/10 times. Rare chance it actually displays the block.