When a tree grows from a sapling, sometimes it won't update a nearby daylight sensor if the trunk blocks light from hitting it.
In the screenshots provided, I have set up a mechanism that will push the trunk of the tree forward when it grows.
The first screenshot shows an overview of where I will grow the tree.
The second and third screenshots show a closeup of the dirt patch, the daylight sensor and my dispenser (for bonemeal).
The fourth screenshot shows the tree successfully grown. Notice that it is still in its original position, blocking any light from hitting the daylight sensor.
The fifth and sixth screenshots show the bottom block removed and then replaced. The bottom block is the one that blocks the light.
The seventh and final screenshots shows that the trunk has now been pushed, due to the daylight sensor successfully updating when I manually placed the block.
For whatever reason, allowing taller trees to grow seems to make the issue occur less frequently. When limiting tree height to 6 blocks (minimum), it happened almost 100% of the time, while removing the limit seemed to mostly eliminate it. It still happens rarely, but I noticed a case of the daylight sensor updating with a delay of several seconds (10+).
UPDATE: Continued testing shows the results are ultimately inconsistent. Short trees are still very likely to cause the issue; limiting the height of trees only caused the issue more frequently because short trees would always grow.
Several more cases of delayed updating have been recorded, mostly with tall trees. However, any height is also prone to being stuck indefinitely.