Downloading the current server software off mojang's website and launching it (minecraft_server.1.7.10.exe) causes it to crash on launch. Downloading a redundant copy, updating java, running with compatibility modes and running as administrator do not solve the issue.
UPDATE: There is no crash report or server log, or even a single error message. The program doesn't even get that far. Double clicking the application opens a new window which closes immediately. The server software does not even begin to run in the first place, ergo the absence of a server log.