Some players have found that enabling Developer Mode on Windows 10 enables the game to load. Please be cautious before you decide to try this workaround. Developer Mode may reduce your protection from a malware attack, and will make other changes to how Windows behaves that you may not want. The developers are still working on a proper fix, so if you have doubts about using Developer Mode we would advise you to wait.
Workaround: You must be using an account with Administrator permissions to perform these steps.
Open Settings > Update & Security > For developers
Important! Click the "Learn more" link to understand what changing this setting will do to Windows.
Select Developer mode to enable Developer mode.
- If you are still unable to open Minecraft,-
Make sure you have backup copies of your worlds. (Use Export in the game settings to make a backup.)
Uninstall Minecraft, then reinstall it from the Store.
When you're finished playing Minecraft for a while, it's a good idea to go back to the Settings page and disable Developer Mode by re-selecting "Microsoft Store apps". This will revert to the previous behavior of Windows and restore your protection from malware.
WARNING: If your copy of Minecraft was obtained from any source other than the Microsoft Store, it could have been modified to contain malware. With Developer Mode enabled, the malware may not be detected and could compormise your system and your files.
Thanks to Cameron C for initially finding the underlying certificate problem and ChongXG for discovering that Developer Mode circumvents it!