This seems to be a common issue on Mac OS X 10.8.5 - Temporarily, you need to use the legacy launcher and have Java installed: http://launcher.mojang.com/download/Minecraft_legacy.dmg
Please be aware that Mac OS X 10.8 is no longer supported, the minimum requirement has risen to OS X 10.9: https://help.mojang.com/customer/portal/articles/325948
crashes consistently , despite removal and reinstall , reboot , upgrade of JVM etc.
crash dump attached.
launcher helper crashes all the time - clean install OS X
18w14b Minecraft App MacOS Total Crash
Simultaneous JAVA 6 + MINECRAFT 1.13 Crashes
Game Crash on specific world at start up
Launcher Crash since the new Update
Launcher will not load
bug in the new launcher on OSX 10.10.5
OS X 10.8.3 launcher crashes
New Launcher fails to launch
New Minecraft Launcher update not opening
Cannot even open the launcher...
OSX: "Minecraft quit unexpectedly" on game launch
Launcher won't load
Launcher does not start on MAC OS
Since last update on mac OSx - launch failure
Launcher on Mac OSX 10.8.5 crashes
Launcher 2.0.849 crashes on game exit
Minecraft Launcher has been stopped
1.12 still crashes on the Mac with "launcher Helper quit unexpectedly."
Minecraft launcher fails
Launcher crash after quitting game
Cant open Minecraft launcher
Loader is crashing
Launcher Helper quit unexpectedly - ALWAYS - Clean install!