The summary pretty much states the whole bug, insert this command into a command block and power the command block to see.
the reason why I am changing the name to, "One" and making it visible is so you can visually see if the command took place or not if the ender pearl gets a name tag above it. You'll notice that the ender pearl will still teleport you to the ender pearl and disregard if the name in the data has been changed or not.
Just noticed that the bug still works but, if you change the tag to a player who exists in the world currently it will teleport the original thrower of the pearl and the person whom you changed the data to.
If you summon a ThrownEnderpearl and change the tag to match a player currently active in the world it WILL in fact teleport that person.