This occurs whenever the dimensions of a texture are a non-square number (24 x 24) or any odd-numbered resolution (7 x 7), mipmaping is set to any non-zero value, and anisotropic filtering is set to 0.
At significant distance, any face with a strongly acute angle to the player will simply not render correctly, making the terrain rendering appear choppy. For odd-numbered resolutions, this may also cause the edges of the tiles to disappear even at relatively close distances.
The easiest way to recreate the issue is to set mipmaping to 4 and anisotropic filtering to 0 with any pack that uses non-square-numbered block resolutions. Although this problem is visible with any non-zero mipmaping setting, it is most easily visible when set to 4. A super-flat world demonstrates the effect most dramatically.